The Brain Collective
Suite 5.20, Windsor House
Cornwall Road
Harrogate
HG1 2PW
harrogate@thebraincollective.co.uk
(01423) 565522

What we do

The BrainCollective offers a powerful combination of technology, and we are positioned to offer the most comprehensive intensive Neurotherapy in the UK today for children and adults.

We provide several innovative, safe, non-invasive approaches such as Neurofeedback (operant conditioning), Neuro field (electromagnetic field stimulation), HEG (Hemoencephalography), and tDCS/tACS (transcranial direct or alternating current stimulation) .

Using our equipment and knowledge we can identify dysregulation in the brain which is causing the symptoms or problems. Through training and ‘coaxing’ the brain using a 3 step process, we can help regulate the brain to function more efficiently.

3 step process involves: 

 

Functionality

Reviewing the functionality of the brain

Stability

Developing and maintaining stability of brain function

Efficiency

Maximising efficiency of the brain

How the brain works

Brainwaves are generated by the individual cells in the brain called neurons which communicate with each other by electrical changes, and these electrical changes can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG).

Brainwaves are measured in cycles per second in Hertz (Hz), often referred to as frequency. The lower the frequency or number of Hertz, the slower the brain activity.

Several types of brainwaves have been identified including;

Brainwave

Frequency

Occurrence

Function

Effect of Imbalance

Delta

1 -  4Hz

During sleep

Physical growth, restoration, complex problem-solving

Sleep disturbance, foggy thinking, poor impulse control, poor judgement, learning difficulties, difficulties processing.

Theta

4-7 Hz

‘Twilight zone’

Sleep, deep relaxation, visualisation, learning, memory, spontaneity, creativity

Distractibility, inattention, diminished intellectual efficiency, day dreaming, depression, loss of focus.

Alpha

8-13 Hz

Relaxed calm focused attention.

The brain’s main driving force – the state of optimal energy efficiency in terms of oxygen and glucose utilisation.

Higher alpha frequencies are associated with accurate and efficient information processing – being ‘in the zone’

Anxiety, defiance, OCD, fatigue, learning problems, disassociation, depression and lack of focus.

Beta

13-38 Hz

During active thinking and problem solving.

Keep us alert and focused

Anxiety, defiance, OCD, fatigue, learning problems, disassociation, depression and lack of focus.

Sensorimotor Rhythm

12 – 15 Hz

SMR is dominant when sensorimotor areas are idle, e.g. during states of immobility.

Focus and concentration – ‘stillness’

Hyperactivity, lack of focus and attention. Epilepsy and tic disorders.

 

Gamma waves

39 – 100Hz

Higher mental activity.

Higher Mental activity, intuition and insightfulness.

Learning difficulties

 

Our brains produce all the above brainwaves and the brain is capable of monitoring and achieving the right balance of these brainwaves, for example, when at school or work, the beta waves allow us to stay focused and perform well, whereas when at home, we produce less beta and the amount of alpha activity increases as we relax.

Often, our brains cannot maintain this balance and may not be able to operate at a peak performance and produce too many slower frequencies leading to difficulty in concentrating, applying yourself, or not produce enough delta waves leading to a disturbed sleep pattern.

Brainwaves can be measured by EEG and subsequently trained, increasing ones which are not operating at their maximum or decreasing the ones which are over stimulated.

History of neurofeedback

Neurofeedback was originally developed in the 1960s by Dr Barry Sterman who was researching neurological activity associated with sleep at UCLA, California.  Using electroencephalography (EEC) he monitored the brain activity of cats and noticed that a particular brain activity at 14 hertz occurred a regular intervals was associated with muscle tension. This brain activity was subsequently labelled sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) and further studies showed when cats were rewarded with milk each time the burst of activity was seen, the cats were able to generate SMR in abundance

This led to work for NASA evaluating the toxicity of rocket fuel on the astronauts who suffered severe headaches, nausea, hyperventilation, hallucinations and seizures. Again this research was conducted on the cats and surprisingly it was noted those cats who had been in the first study and generated increased levels of SMR, were not as affected.

The first use of neurofeedback in humans was on epileptic patients with severe seizures resistant to medication. 60% of the patient population in the study saw a reduction in seizure activity following training.

Once the research was published in 1972 by Sterman and colleagues, other researchers started to investigate neurofeedback for other conditions. Based on the initial research and the epileptic patients also reporting reduced restlessness and a reduction in hyperactive behaviour, the training was applied to ADHD by Joel Lubar. Today, clinical evidence exists for the use of neurofeedback in many different conditions and patient populations.

QEEG explained

QEEG (Quantitative Electroencephalography) allows us to see and isolate specific brainwaves that are irregular and assess the functional connectivity between different parts of the brain.

During an assessment/session, an electrode cap with 19 electrodes at standardised locations designated by the International 10-20 Electrode Placement System is placed over your scalp. A saline gel creates a connection between the scalp and the electrode and the cap is then connected to an amplifier to enable to electrical activity from the scalp to be recorded.

Each location for the electrodes relates to a different function of the brain as shown below and therefore allows us to identify and isolate specific problem areas and the function they are responsible for.

What is neurofeedback?

Neurofeedback, also referred to as Neurotherapy or EEG biofeedback is a strategy that can be used to modify the electrical activity of the brain and central nervous system. This can help restore the right balance of brainwaves using operant conditioning techniques.

Electrical activity in the brain is responsible for controlling our attention, thoughts, behaviour, regulating our hormones and bodily functions, and any change to these brainwaves can have a broad impact.

Through visual and auditory feedback using games, films or music that are linked to the brainwave activity change brain activity can be achieved. Your brain waves learn to be more normal by rewarding you when they are more normal.  You see images and hear sounds that when you normalise your brain waves. In this way, your brain waves “learn to be more normal”.

Over time the brain will learn and remember these new brain wave patterns and research has shown these changes can be permanent.

We offer the latest methods of brain mapping and neurofeedback using the LORETA (Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomographic Analysis) real-time Z score system which allows us compare an individual's brain to an age-matched healthy, high functioning normative database (Thatcher) to identify areas of dysregulation and normalise that activity deep inside the brain.

What is Neurofield?

Neurofield is a non-invasive Neurotherapy technique which has been developed by Dr Nick Dogris and Brad Wiitala. This is an FDA approved therapy which is an ultra-low intensity, pulsed electromagnetic field (pEMF) that works to replenish energy and reduce stress in the brain and body.  Neurofield causes an increase in capillary blood flow and guides and entrains the brain. It is a phenomenally flexible tool in terms of choice of frequencies to train and location of the coils on the head and body.

For more detailed information about Neurofield and its development Click Here 

What is HEG?

HEG is short for Hemoencephalography and focuses on the blood flow in the brain. This offers a different approach to training and allows us to target certain skills or areas that have suffered trauma or damage. HEG has shown very positive results in executive function associated with the frontal lobes of the brain such as organisation, attention, and planning.

HEG uses an infrared thermometer that shines light through the skin and skull to assess the amount of oxygen in the blood of the brain.  The harder the brain is working, the greater the requirement for oxygen and therefore the greater the blood flow is.

What is tDCS, tACS?

Transcranial direct or alternating current stimulation improves memory, attention and learning and is a safe, non-invasive method. It delivers low-intensity, direct or alternating electric currents to the scalp and underlying brain using electrodes positioned over the area of the brain of interest. tDCS /tACS promotes neuroplasticity and creating lasting changes to the brain by the development of new neural pathways.

 

 

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